Most Americans think there was little or no slavery in the North. In fact, the history of slavery in America actually began to flourish very early there and came into being shortly after the earliest Northern colonizers. It is generally agreed the first black people to come to America landed in Virginia in 1619 off of a Dutch “trading ship.” Historians generally agree the Dutch Republic was trading in slaves by this time. Although it is generally assumed some of the 1619 arrivers were slaves, no records exist to indicate that all were slaves. Shortly thereafter, in 1626, New York was colonized as “New Amsterdam” by The Dutch West India Company. This trading company was chartered by the Dutch Republic, (Holland), in 1621, and officially organized in 1623. In 1626, the company purchased the island of Manhattan from a Native American tribe and began to trade goods with other traders, including Native Americans. In the book edited by Roi Ottley and William J. Weatherby, entitled “The Negro in New York-An Informal Social History, (1967), the first black people came to New Amsterdam shortly after the Dutch settlers arrived. Initially, according to the editors, the Dutch colony consisted of some thirty families, who were of “Dutch, Huguenot, Walloon, English, and Jewish origin.” Later, a group of eleven (11) black men arrived in New Amsterdam off of a ship belonging to The Dutch West India Company in 1626. The editors state these black men were almost immediately put to work as “…the Company’s Negroes, building roads, cutting timber, clearing land and erecting dwellings and forts.” They were not free. Two additional ships brought fewer than a hundred black men to New Amsterdam on two other occasions: 1642 and 1652. Indentured servants, both white and black, were brought to the colony by the Dutch between 1629 and 1664, as settlers. They were called “patroons” and many were given land to permanently settle on by the Dutch government. The settlers built farms, however, not large plantations, but they used slave labor.
According to the editors of the book, The Negro in New York-An Informal Social History, these patroons “…introduced Negroes to work their land.” They also introduced slavery, officially sanctioned by the Dutch government in 1634. In 1644, eleven of the first blacks in New Amsterdam petitioned for and were granted their freedom by the settlers. Unfortunately, the institution of slavery continued to grow as did the slave trade. New Amsterdam later became a British colony and was renamed “New York” after 1664. After the British took over, the harshest realities of slavery ensued. Chattel slavery began in New York in 1674 under the British. Slavery grew so fast under British rule that, according to the editors, “…by the beginning of the eighteenth century there were more than two thousand Negroes in the province, a little over thirteen percent of the total population.” However, in New York, not all blacks were slaves. There existed a small, but viable population of free blacks in the area who had never been slaves.
In the early 1700’s there were at least two slave revolts in New York, one in 1712 and one in 1741. Both revolts were suppressed. After the French and Indian War of 1754, it became apparent that slavery was not a profit-making enterprise in New York. In 1767, the Society of Friends, known as the Quakers, organized an anti-slavery protest in Purchase, New York. This protest was successful among slave-owning Quakers and all of them freed their slaves. By 1776, the Declaration of Independence was drafted and the
notion of equality and freedom permeated New York. The successful War of Independence from England began shortly thereafter. The American Colonies’ Declaration of War and British losses prompted the British to issue a broad proclamation on July 3, 1779 that granted freedom to any slaves who joined the British forces in the War of Independence. Many black people escaped from the harshness of slavery and joined the British forces. Some have estimated the number to be 10,000. After the Revolutionary War was lost by the British, the black volunteers were saved by being expatriated by Britain to Nova Scotia, Canada, one of its remaining colonies. Many escaped alone to Canada.
New York was more of a mercantile state than an agricultural one. It had little need for mass slavery, either before or after The Revolutionary War. In 1785, The Manumission Society was established to help in the abolition of slavery. Its first president was John Jay, who became Governor of New York in 1795. He was a fierce abolitionist. By 1790, it has been estimated, nearly thirty-three percent of blacks in New York state were free. After obtaining freedom, they formed many black institutions. In 1799 a bill was passed and signed by Governor Jay that provided for the gradual abolition of all slavery in New York State. Slavery officially ended on July 4, 1827. Earlier, in 1808, before slavery officially ended in New York, one of the first black organizations to foster black improvement was founded by Peter Williams. It was chartered in 1810 and was called the New York African Society for Mutual Relief. Its stated mission was “to raise a fund to be appropriated toward the relief of the widows and orphans of the deceased members. It was a successful
endeavor and continued for many years. It became a model for many other black American improvement organizations.
In New York, the institution of slavery lasted for nearly 100 years. Slavery in New York was abolished thirty-five years before the beginning the Civil War. In the South, the slavery dependent states violently resisted black freedom to the very bitter end and began a mass insurrection against the Union in 1861 in order to defend slavery. The Confederacy definitively lost the Civil War nearly four years later when its insurrection was defeated by Union troops, including nearly 200,000 black volunteer soldiers, in 1865.
Elie Wiesel, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize and the author of Night, often spoke of the need to remember the Holocaust, which resulted in the killing of 6 million Jewish people in Europe during World War II. Of himself, he wrote, "For the survivor who chooses to testify, it is clear: his duty is to bear witness for the dead and the living. He has no right to deprive future generations a past that belongs to our collective memory. To forget would be not only dangerous but offensive, to forget the idea would be akin to killing them a second time."
This quote also applies to African Americans. We cannot forget, in fact, it behooves us to learn more about the history of lynching in America, which was an inhumane, horrific, and systematic method of terrorizing African Americans from the period of Black Reconstruction after the Civil War to the 1950’s and undoubtedly later. It was used to put black people, in what many white Americans believed to be, in our place and deny us our rights, especially the right to vote, under the United States Constitution.
The Civil War was fought to preserve the institution of slavery. Eleven states, all from the South, seceded from the Union and in 1861, the war began. The people in power in these Southern states firmly believed in the subordination of black people to white people and that political power must forever be in the hands of white people, never to be shared with people of color. Many whites believed the institution of slavery would last forever. As the war dragged on, many former slaves escaped to the North and the Union Army; and, after two
years of war, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which stated that slaves held in the Confederate states to be…”then, thenceforward, and forever free.” There was much resistance by the Southern states and the slave owners. The true abolition of slavery nationwide did not occur until 1865, with the ratification of the 13th Amendment. By that time. racial inequality had been ingrained in American society since the first arrival of black people off a Dutch slave ship in 1619. Emancipation, this official freedom from slavery, prompted a great upheaval in Southern society. There was great resistance to relinquishing racial power. White supremacy was a deep part of the American belief system before and after the Civil War and still.
Immediately after the Civil War, (since the rebellious Confederacy and those who fought to preserve its way of life were forbidden to vote), Black Reconstruction began and for the first time in American history, black men were allowed the right to vote. As a consequence of doing so, and getting elected to state high offices and to the United States Congress for the first time, a vicious backlash began. Black people began to be killed just for exercising their right to vote. The only thing that kept more black deaths from taking place was the use of Union soldiers, who were placed throughout the South by President Ulysses S. Grant. The beginning of helpful institutions such black public schools, colleges and universities, medical and dental schools, the Freedmen’s Bureau, the introduction of a banking system that
could be used by black Americans, and the prosecution and dismantling of the Ku Klux Klan by the federal government were extremely helpful. When the Union Army protection ended around the late 1870’s, lynching began en masse. The Equal Justice Initiative, (EJI), in its book, LYNCHING IN AMERICA - Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror, states,
“Mass incarceration, excessive penal punishment, disproportionate sentencing of racial minorities, and police abuse of people of color reveal problems in American society that were framed in the terror era. The narrative of racial difference that lynching dramatized continues to haunt us.”
EJI has verified 4,084 terror lynchings of black people between 1877 and 1950. Two documented lynchings by EJI occurred in Pinellas County, Florida. This was also the period of almost absolute racial segregation, Black Codes, (separate laws pertaining solely to black Americans throughout the South), and Jim Crow. According to EJI, “By 1890, the term ‘Jim Crow’ was used to describe the ‘subordination and separation of black people in the South, much of it codified and much of it still enforced by custom, habit, and violence.”
The lynchings were horrible. Black men and sometimes women were hung from trees with rope around their necks, from scaffolds, and from rail road tracks. Some were beaten, maimed, cut, and burned alive while hung. Many were public spectacles, advertised in local newspapers as to the time and location of the lynchings. Most were without any real evidence of any actual crime having been committed. Black men were often convicted of rape, solely on the word of a white female, arrested, taken from jail and lynched. As EJI has aptly stated,” African Americans living in the South during this era were terrorized (by lynching) if they intentionally or accidentally violated any social
more defined by any white person.“ This reign of terror was legitimized by those whites in positions of power. According to EJI black “…subjugation was to be achieved through any means necessary, and whites who undertook the duty of carrying out lynchings would face no legal repercussions.” During this period, ( 1877 to 1950), Florida has been documented to have perpetrated 311 Lynchings; Louisiana 549; Mississippi 654; Georgia 589; Arkansas 492; and Texas 335. In looking for relief, African Americans looked to the black press and anti-lynching forces gathered around the black press, such as the NAACP, and freedom fighters such as Ida B. Wells, T. Thomas Fortune, and Monroe Work, a sociologist at Tuskegee Institute. By the 1950’s the Civil Rights era had begun and lynchings began to subside. Black Americans took the struggle to the ballot box and to the Courts. Thurgood Marshall, Charles Hamilton Huston, and Charles White, among others became “Lions of the Law” in the Civil Rights fight. This new phase of the struggle for human rights for black Americans opened a brand new era in American history and is still on-going.
Attorney Jacqueline Hubbard grew up in Saint Petersburg, graduating from Gibbs High School, Bryn Mawr College, and Boston University Law School. She has practiced Law in MA, CA, The U.S.V..I. and FL. She is currently the President of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc. (“ASALH”). May 4, 2019
This is the 2nd of a series on lynching in America
Jacqueline Hubbard participated in the May 2, 2019 commemoration of Yom HaShoah on Holocaust Remembrance Day at the Florida Holocaust Museum. This day is a "day of solemnity to remember the six million Jewish men, women, and children who suffered and died at the hands of the Nazi regime and their collaborators during the Holocaust or Shoah.” Jacqueline was one of many who read the names of victims throughout the day.